2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Research Related Cell Products
● A Brief Introduction of 2019-nCoV
2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a branch of coronavirus. Due to its strong human-to-human transmission through respiratory droplets, the 2019-nCoV induced a large-scale outbreak in the world at this moment. As for the growing seriousness of 2019-nCoV spreading, an international concerned emergency has been announced by the World Health Organization (WHO). Right now, the development of precisely targeted vaccines and medicine is still on the way. The patients, suspected, and close contacts should be tested and cared as quickly as possible. Meanwhile, a more detailed mechanism of ways to block amplification at the molecular level is urgently needed.
● 2019-nCoV Genome Sequence
The available 2019-nCoV sequences were published since Jan 2020. The samples were obtained from several infected individuals and the results show that most of the individuals exhibit an extremely high sequence identity. These typical coincident sequences make it possible to establish PCR, RT-PCR and nucleic acid test kit for detection in the high-risk group during the incubation period (approximately 14 days).
The 2019-nCoV has 4 structural proteins on its protein surfaces. The spike(S) protein is responsible to attach to the membrane of the target cell, combine with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. It has also been reported that 2019-nCoV would infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the ACE2 receptor.
Several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. S target vaccine has become a hot spot for the related research. Recently, a new type of vaccine, called nucleic acid vaccine, directly injects gene that encodes the S protein into the human body, using human cells to produce the S protein, which stimulates the body to produce antibody. The vaccine still needs to be tested.
● AcceGen 2019-nCoV Research Related Products
Cell Lines :
2019-nCoV belongs to the β genus that shows a shape in the polymorphic, the virus is covered with fatty membrane, with its diameter in 60-220nm. The 2019-nCoV seems closely related with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that outbroke in 2002 because they show 76% in amino acid identity. And the mediate entry experiment shows that 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV are capable of entering a similar spectrum of cell lines.
According to the result of the SARS-CoV invasion test, researchers have found some cells susceptible to 2019-nCoV, includes human cell lines 293T, Huh-7, Caco-2, and the animal cell lines Vero, MDCKII. When isolated and cultured in vitro, the 2019-nCoV can be found in human respiratory epithelial cells in about 96 hours, however, it takes about 6 days for the virus to be found if isolated and cultured in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cell lines.
The host cell factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 play important roles in transfection. The receptor ACE2 provides an entry, and the host cell protease TMPRSS2 works as a primer that induces the S protein binding to a cellular receptor. And the effect of TMPRSS2 inhibitor is proved on nCoV-2019 infection experiments in cell lines. The interaction between S protein and ACE2 provides a solid foundation for drug and vaccine design, and the level of related cells may play an important role in testing and promotion.
These mechanisms are discovered and verified by cell experiments. 293T, Vero (TMPRSS2-) and Caco-2(TMPRSS2+) are chosen as targets. Camostat mesylatel, the clinically proven serine protease inhibitor, could work as a TMPRSS2 inhibitor that partially blocked 2019-nCoV entry into Caco-2 and genetically modified VERO-TMPRSS2 cells. However, the inhibition is less efficient in the 293T and Vero cell lines.
Primary Cells :
Like other viruses, 2019-nCoV utilize animals as the primary host. The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including the coronavirus. 2019-nCoV attack and inflame respiratory epithelial cells, inducing a severe respiratory illness and pneumonia. When isolated and cultured in vitro, the 2019-nCoV can be found in human respiratory epithelial cells in about 96 hours. It is much sooner than cell lines which could take 6 days for the virus to be found in cultured Vero E6 and Huh-7 cell lines. Thus, we recommend respiratory epithelial cells (like Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells) that could soon be infected by 2019-nCoV. Unlike SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV, the 2019-nCoV grows better in primary human airway epithelial cells than in standard tissue-culture cells.
The aforementioned findings might provide insights into the viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets, helping to establish a potential target of prevention and treatment. Related cell lines Huh-7, Vero, Caco-2, 293T are available and immediately in stock.