E-PAK® Fixed Bed Flow-Through Purification Cartridges
E-PAK is a family of radial flow adsorption cartridges developed specifically for pharmaceutical processing.
Offered with a choice of metal scavengers, bare silica & activated carbons, these cartridges are designed to
remove precious metal catalysts, reaction-by-products or color from synthetic reaction mixtures and natural products.
• Easy Scale-Up
From laboratory to industrial production
• Proven Technology
Proven cartridge design & reliable technology
High adsorption capacity & flow rate
Safer handling, clean-up & disposal
Increases product recovery & reduces solvent requirements
• Various Sorbents Offered
SiliaMetS Metal Scavengers, Bare Silica & Activated Carbons
E-PAK Cartridges Portfolio
E-PAK Cartridges are offered in 3 formats:
Lab ScalePilot ScaleCommercial Scale
With 3 types of sorbents :
• SiliaFlash irregular silica gels
40 - 63 µm
60 - 200 µm
200 - 500 µm
• Metal Scavengers
• Activated Carbons
We also offer a range of housings for each cartridge format :
|Active Adsorbents||For Removal and/or Recovery of :||pH Operation|
|SiliaMetS Thiol||Pd, Ag, Hg, Os, Ru, Cu, Ir, Pb, Rh, Se & Sn||2 to 10|
|SiliaMetS DMT||Pd, As, Ir, Ni, Os, Pt, Rh, Ru Se, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sc & Zn|
|SiliaMetS Imidazole||Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Li, Mg, Ni, Os, W, Zn, Cr, Pd & Rh|
|SiliaBond Amine||Pd, Cr, Pt, W, Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Ru, Sc & Se|
|SiliaFlash Bare Silica||Very vast range of organic impurities, metals, pigments...||2 to 9|
|Activated Carbons||Precious metal catalysts & colors||1 to 13|
One of the strongest benefits of SiliCycle E-PAK Cartridges is their linearity upon scale-up.As shown below, in a typical Suzuki-Miyaura coupling for which palladium needed to be removed, each format behaved very similarly in terms of efficiency (scavenging %), kinetics and relative capacity.
|E-PAK Format||Bead volume (mL)||Flow rate (mL/min)||Residence Time (min:sec)|
|5 cm x 1 cm||18.8||10||01:53|
|5 cm x 12 cm||188||100||01:53|
|5 cm x 25 cm||470||250||01:53|
|16.5 cm x 25 cm||4,750||2,600||01:50|
|16.5 cm x 100 cm||19,000||10,400||01:50|
Once the best purifications sorbents have been identified in bulk, transferring the conditions from bulk to cartridges can be a very robust strategy for rapid and efficient scale-up.
Various Ways of Using E-PAK
Depending on the application and how you prefer to work, E-PAK cartridges can be used in different ways as shown below.
For a single pass usage, we suggest to run at very low flow rate compared to recirculation process, which can be run at higher flow rate.
Flow & Hydraulic Pressure Drop
Cartridges provide rapid kinetics at flow rates and contact times suitable for single pass operation. The chart below shows typical flow rates and pressure drop performance for Lab, Pilot and Commercial Scale Cartridges.
(diameter x height)
|Minimum Flow Rate||Maximum Flow Rate||Pressure Drop ΔP (Psig)
with w/1 cps Fluid
|5 x 1 cm (Lab)||5 mL/min||100 mL/min||≤ 7.5 psig|
|5 x 10 cm (Lab)||50 mL/min||500 mL/min||≤ 5 psig|
|5 x 25 cm (Lab)||125 mL/min||1 L/min||≤ 5 psig|
|16.5 x 12.5 cm (Pilot)||0.95 L/min||2.5 L/min||≤ 10 psig|
|16.5 x 25 cm (Pilot)||1.9 L/min||5 L/min||≤ 10 psig|
|16.5 x 50 cm (Commercial)||3.8 L/min||10 L/min||≤ 10 psig|
|16.5 x 100 cm (Commercial)||7.6 L/min||20 L/min||≤ 10 psig|
E-PAK cartridges are formed using a proprietary technology and chemically stable materials in common organic solvents.
E-PAK cartridges have been tested and found satisfactory for use with the following commonly used solvents:
• Ethyl acetate
E-PAK cartridges are suitable for operation at pH of 1 to 13 for activated carbon and 2 to 12 for silica-based products.
Handling and Safety
Initial solvent wetting of E-PAK cartridges will produce heat; a risk assessment with the use with low vapor pressure solvents is recommended.
The adsorbent matrix in E-PAK cartridges is electrically conductive. E-PAK cartridges filter housings and retrofit kits provide a connection between the adsorbent matrix and the filter cartridge housing. A risk assessment of electrical discharge in explosion proof environments is recommended.
Quality and Regulatory
E-PAK cartridges are manufactured under ISO 9001, GMP manufacturing operations in Glasgow, DE (U.S.A.).
Drug Master File registrations are in progress.