Creative Enzymes is an innovative company that has developed new technologies to manufacture a series of coenzyme products. We are proud to provide products of utmost quality and the most reliable service to our customers. Creative Enzymes supplies various coenzymes which include nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), coenzyme A (CoA), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), tetrahydrofolate, coenzyme B, biotin, and so on.
Definition of Coenzymes
A coenzyme is a small organic molecule, but not a peptide, that binds to an enzyme and whose presence is essential to the activity of the enzyme. It is considered to be an assistant molecule for biochemical reactions. Coenzymes provide a transfer site for a functioning enzyme in most cases. It often functions as an intermediate carrier of electrons, specific atoms, or functional groups, allowing a reaction to occur. Coenzymes are usually not a part of an enzyme's structure or the substrate of the reaction. The coenzyme may either be a prosthetic group— a tightly bound coenzyme—or a co-substrate, which is a loosely bound small organic molecule. An inactive enzyme without the cofactor is called an apoenzyme, while the complete enzyme with cofactor is called a holoenzyme.
Coenzymes, Cofactors, and Prosthetic Groups
Some textbooks regard all assistant molecules that bind to an enzyme as cofactors, while others divide these chemicals into three groups:
• Coenzymes are small non-protein, organic molecules that bind to an enzyme. Many coenzymes are vitamins or derivatives of vitamins. While some other coenzymes are built around adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
• Cofactors are small non-protein chemicals or metallic ions that can aid an enzyme function and increase the rate of the catalytic reaction. Cofactors can be subdivided intoin organic ions, complex organic molecules, and metallo-organic molecules which can also be called coenzymes. A cofactor that is tightly or even covalently bound to an enzyme is sometimes termed as a prosthetic group. Typical cofactors are considered to be the metal ions. Even some metallic elements have no nutritional value, several trace elements function as cofactors in multiple biochemical reactions, such as iron, zinc, magnesium, and copper. However, some trace elements that play a part in nutrition do not appear to act as cofactors, including chromium, iodine, and calcium.
• Prosthetic groups are organic partner molecules that bind tightly or covalently to the enzyme and participate in the catalytic cycles of enzymes, such as Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
Overall, different sources give various definitions of coenzymes, cofactors, and prosthetic groups. Some consider the tightly bound organic molecules as prosthetic groups and not as coenzymes, while others define all non-protein organic molecules bind to enzymes as coenzymes and classify those that are tightly bound as coenzyme prosthetic groups. Therefore,it should be noted that these three terms are oftenexchangeableand used loosely.